Echinacea contains several bioactive compounds, including alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharides. Alkamides, such as echinacein and isobutylamides, are believed to be responsible for the immune-stimulating effects of Echinacea. They are thought to interact with various immune cells and promote the activity of the immune system. Caffeic acid derivatives, such as echinacoside and chicoric acid, are antioxidant compounds found in Echinacea. They contribute to the overall health benefits of the plant and possess potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Polysaccharides, including arabinogalactans and inulin-type fructans, are complex carbohydrates found in Echinacea. These polysaccharides have immune-enhancing properties and are believed to stimulate the activity of immune cells.

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